womens ob/gyn

Annual mammograms at 40 prevents the most cancer deaths

 
When to initiate screening for breast cancer, how often to screen, and how long to screen are questions that continue to spark emotional debates.

 

When to initiate screening for breast cancer, how often to screen, and how long to screen are questions that continue to spark emotional debates.When to initiate screening for breast cancer, how often to screen, and how long to screen are questions that continue to spark emotional debates. A new study compares the number of deaths that might be prevented as a result of three of the most widely discussed recommendations for screening mammography. Published early online in CANCER, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Cancer Society, the findings may provide valuable guidance to women and their physicians about choosing a screening regimen.

To uncover insights that might help women make informed choices about mammography screening, researchers led by Elizabeth Kagan Arleo, MD, of Weill Cornell Medicine and New York-Presbyterian, and R. Edward Hendrick, PhD, of the University of Colorado School of Medicine, used computer modeling to estimate the possible effects of three schemes: annual screening starting at age 40 years, annual screening at ages 45 to 54 years and then biennial screening at ages 55 to 79 years, and biennial screening at ages 50 to 74 years.

The investigators estimated how many breast cancer deaths might be prevented with the different screening schemes. The team found that the recommendation of annual screening starting at age 40 would result in the greatest reduction in breast cancer-specific deaths: a nearly 40 percent reduction in deaths due to breast cancer, compared with 23 percent to 31 percent reductions with other recommendations.

“Our findings are important and novel because this is the first time the three most widely discussed recommendations for screening mammography have been compared head to head,” said Dr. Arleo. “Our research would be put to good use if, because of our findings, women chose to start annual screening mammography starting at age 40. Over the long term, this would be significant because fewer women would die from breast cancer.”

The researchers’ modeling also considered risks associated with screening, including callbacks for additional imaging and, in some cases, a needle biopsy, both of which may reveal the absence of breast cancer despite a suspicious mammography finding.

“Our results show the differences in the three current recommendations for screening mammography in terms of benefits and risks. Women and their physicians can use these findings to guide choices of when a woman begins screening mammography and how often she gets screened,” said Dr. Hendrick.

An estimated 252,710 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 63,410 new cases of non-invasive breast cancer are expected to be diagnosed in women in the United States in 2017, with 40,610 US women expected to die from breast cancer in 2017. About 33 million screening mammography exams are performed each year.

In an accompanying editorial, Otis Brawley, MD, of the American Cancer Society, noted that it is ultimately an individual’s value judgment as to how many false positive mammograms and biopsies are too many to save one life. He stressed that it is important to acknowledge the limitations of mammography and to make it a priority to develop a better test. “The ideal test would be easy to administer and accurate in women of all ages, meaning there would be few false positives and few tumors would be missed,” he wrote.


Story Source:

Materials provided by Wiley. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Elizabeth Kagan Arleo, R. Edward Hendrick, Mark A. Helvie, Edward A. Sickles. Comparison of recommendations for screening mammography using CISNET models. Cancer, 2017; DOI: 10.1002/cncr.30842

View this article on ScienceDaily.com; “Comparison of screening recommendations indicates annual mammography: Starting at age 40 prevents the most cancer deaths.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 August 2017.

 

New Study Concludes: Women have more active brains than men

Largest functional brain imaging study to date identifies specific brain differences between women and men, according to a new report in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease

 In the largest functional brain imaging study to date, researchers compared 46,034 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging studies provided by nine clinics, quantifying differences between the brains of men and women.

The study findings explain why women tend to exhibit greater strengths in the areas of empathy, intuition, collaboration, self-control, and concern.
Side view of the brain summarizing blood flow results from tens of thousands of study subjects shows increased blood flow in women compared to men, highlighted in the red colored areas of the brain: the cingulate gyrus and precuneus. Men in this image have higher blood flow in blue colored areas — the cerebellum.
Credit: Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease

The study findings of increased prefrontal cortex blood flow in women compared to men may explain why women tend to exhibit greater strengths in the areas of empathy, intuition, collaboration, self-control, and appropriate concern. The study also found increased blood flow in limbic areas of the brains of women, which may also partially explain why women are more vulnerable to anxiety, depression, insomnia, and eating disorders.

In the largest functional brain imaging study to date, the Amen Clinics (Newport Beach, CA) compared 46,034 brain SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) imaging studies provided by nine clinics, quantifying differences between the brains of men and women. The study is published in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.

Lead author, psychiatrist Daniel G. Amen, MD, founder of Amen Clinics, Inc., commented, “This is a very important study to help understand gender-based brain differences. The quantifiable differences we identified between men and women are important for understanding gender-based risk for brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. Using functional neuroimaging tools, such as SPECT, are essential to developing precision medicine brain treatments in the future.”

The brains of women in the study were significantly more active in many more areas of the brain than men, especially in the prefrontal cortex, involved with focus and impulse control, and the limbic or emotional areas of the brain, involved with mood and anxiety. The visual and coordination centers of the brain were more active in men. SPECT can measure blood perfusion in the brain. Images acquired from subjects at rest or while performing various cognitive tasks will show different blood flow in specific brain regions.

Subjects included 119 healthy volunteers and 26,683 patients with a variety of psychiatric conditions such as brain trauma, bipolar disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia/psychotic disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 128 brain regions were analyzed for subjects at baseline and while performing a concentration task.

Understanding these differences is important because brain disorders affect men and women differently. Women have significantly higher rates of Alzheimer’s disease, depression, which is itself is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease, and anxiety disorders, while men have higher rates of (ADHD), conduct-related problems, and incarceration (by 1,400%).

Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Dean of the College of Sciences at The University of Texas at San Antonio, Dr. George Perry said, “Precisely defining the physiological and structural basis of gender differences in brain function will illuminate Alzheimer’s disease and understanding our partners.”

Story Source: Materials provided by IOS Press. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Daniel G. Amen, Manuel Trujillo, David Keator, Derek V. Taylor, Kristen Willeumier, Somayeh Meysami, Cyrus A. Raji. Gender-Based Cerebral Perfusion Differences in 46,034 Functional Neuroimaging Scans. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, 2017; 1 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-170432

Read this article on Science Daily: IOS Press. “Women have more active brains than men: Largest functional brain imaging study to date identifies specific brain differences between women and men, according to a new report in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 August 2017.


The Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group strives to better the lives of all women with a holistic approach to women’s health. Call for an appointment today: (707) 579-1102. Visit our website: www.womensobgynmed.com#womenhearthealth

How to always look good at the beach with Laser Hair Removal

With the arrival of summer Dr. Lela Emad of Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group discusses the advantages offered by laser hair removal.

With a heatwave bearing down on Northern California pushing temperatures to the maximum, many people are heading to the beach or hanging out at the pool. Being swimsuit ready is easy with laser hair removal.

The process of summer waxing and constantly shaving unwanted hair, then repeat – and repeat again can be a burdensome routine when all you want to do is get out, dive in and cool off. There is a way to be swimsuit ready all summer long with laser hair removal.  “Traditional methods for removing hair like shaving, tweezing and waxing can be very cumbersome and time consuming for women,” explains Dr. Lela Emad of Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group in Santa Rosa. “Laser hair reduction offers a safe and very effective medical procedure to permanently terminate hair growth from unwanted areas.”

What is Laser Hair Reduction?

Laser hair removal is actually a medical procedure that employs an intense, pulsating beam of light to remove unwanted hair. A focused laser beam passes through the skin to penetrate and essentially vaporize individual hair follicles. The intense heat of the laser damages the hair follicle without harming surrounding skin and tissue. This process acts to inhibit future hair growth and although it may not completely guarantee permanent hair removal, over the course of a few treatments, it can provide an extended hair-free period. Periodic follow-up maintenance treatments are recommended as well.

The procedure is extremely precise and takes only a few minutes to remove hair from small areas, such as the upper lip or chin, and about an hour to treat larger areas, such as the back or legs. Laser hair reduction may require up to five sessions for optimal outcomes, and when performed properly, the procedure successfully terminates hair growth from treated areas in the vast majority of (up to 90%) of women.

Does it work for everyone?

Although anyone can undergo laser hair removal, best results depend on a person’s hair color and skin type. For example, people who have light skin and dark hair have the best results overall due to how the laser beam targets the pigment (melanin) in the hair. Advances in technology over recent years have made laser hair removal an option even for people who have darker skin.

Laser hair removal isn’t always as effective for hair colors such as white, gray, blond or even red because it’s more difficult for the laser to target that range of color,” said Dr. Emad. “Although people with lighter color hair will see results, it may not be as obvious as those with darker hair color.”

While laser hair reduction is fast and easy for patients, it is still a medical procedure that requires an experienced technician to ensure it is performed safely and effectively. The physicians at Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group carry years of experience in performing laser hair reduction and they take care to attend to any discomfort or bad reactions patients may have to the procedure.

Best outcomes for laser hair removal

Laser hair removal leaves skin smooth and soft on the underarms, legs and arms, hands, back, face, bikini area. The results are always immediate and quite lasting. And since hair follicles are essentially transformed by laser light, hair typically will not grow back as quickly as prior to the treatment and occasional touch-ups are recommended to keep the skin smooth and hair-free.

“Patients who have experienced laser technology for hair removal tend to feel better about the look of their skin, and many report experiencing an improvement in body image that gives a boost of confidence,” says Dr. Email. “Above all else, patients appreciate the convenience it provides to the grooming routine.”

About Women’s OB/GYN Laser Hair Removal

Women’s OB/GYN physicians also offer expert advice and products for general skin care and treatment. Call (707) 579-1102 to schedule an appointment and for more information about laser hair reduction and skin care offered by the group. Visit the website to learn more.

Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group of Santa Rosa Focuses on Cervical Health Awareness Month

Dr. Lela Emad offers hope for women concerned about cervical cancer risks, and shares important tips for staying healthy.

Healthy Women January is Cervical Health Awareness Month and there’s good news for the 13,000 women in the United States who are expected to be diagnosed with cervical cancer this year; early detection increases the 5-year survival rate for women with invasive cervical cancer (the worse-case scenario) by up to a whopping 92 percent. “To catch it early, a woman must get screened annually,” explains Dr. Lela Emad OB/GYN, “This is an important factor for the four out of five women who do not receive routine check-ups that includes a Pap Test.”

What is cervical cancer

At one time, cervical cancer was the most prominent cause of cancer death for American women. But, thanks to early detection and new treatment options developed over the last 40 years, the cervical cancer death rate has been cut in half. The real hero in this story is a simple test most women are very familiar with; the Pap test. This screening procedure makes it possible for healthcare professionals to catch minute changes in the cervix well before it has a chance to develop into cancer. Pap tests can also find cervical cancer early – when it is in its most curable stage – giving women with a positive diagnosis an even better chance of beating the disease.

The latest statistics from the American Cancer Society estimates that in the United States;

  • About 12,820 new cases of invasive cervical cancer will be diagnosed
  • About 4,210 women will die from cervical cancer

What causes cervical cancer?

The vast majority of both women and men will become infected with the Human papillomavirus or HPV at some point during their lifetimes and HPV is found in about 99 percent of cervical cancers cases. Although most HPV infections are benign and disappear on their own, some persist. Of the more than 100 different types of HPV most are considered low-risk and do not lead to cervical cancer. But some high-risk HPV strains persist to cause cervical cell abnormalities and go on to develop into cancer. The two types of the virus HPV-16 and HPV-18 are consider the most high-risk HPV strains.

Who gets cervical cancer

Most cases of cervical cancer are found in women between the ages of 20 and 50, and even women who have entered into menopause may still be at risk. About 20 percent of all cervical cancers are found in women over the age of 65. Cervical cancer rarely occurs in women who have received routine screenings for the disease during the years before they turned 65. In the United States, Hispanic women are most likely to get cervical cancer, followed by African-Americans, American Indians and Alaskan natives, and whites. Asians and Pacific Islanders have the lowest risk of cervical cancer in this country.

What is cervical cancer?

Cancer initiates in the body when otherwise normal cells begin to grow out of control, and it can affect any part of the body and even spread to other areas of the body. Cervical cancer begins in the cells lining the cervix — the lower part of the uterus (womb). Although cervical cancers start from cells in the pre-cancerous stages, only some of the women with pre-cancers of the cervix will go on to actually develop cancer. It normally takes a number of years before cervical pre-cancer turns into full blown cervical cancer, but it can happen in less time in some women. For most women, pre-cancerous cells resolve on their own without any treatment. But, treating all cervical pre-cancers can prevent almost all cervical cancers.

Symptoms of cervical cancer

Symptoms of the more advanced disease have been known to include abnormal or irregular vaginal bleeding, pain during sex, and/or unusual vaginal discharge. Abnormal bleeding symptoms outside of regular menstrual periods, after sexual intercourse or douching and bleeding after a pelvic exam can be symptoms of cervical cancer as can bleeding after menopause. Other symptoms include pelvic pain not related to the menstrual cycle, heavy or unusual discharge, increased urinary frequency and pain during urination. Of course, these symptoms could also be signs of other health problems not related to cervical cancer, but the best way to find out is to talk to a healthcare provider.

Prevention

Precancerous cervical cell changes and early cancers of the cervix generally do not cause any unusual symptoms. For this reason, routine screening through Pap and HPV tests is the best way to catch precancerous cell changes early, thereby preventing the development of cervical cancer.

“Pap test screening is obviously the first line of defense against cervical cancer,” says Dr. Emad. “We recommend Pap tests for women on a semi-annual basis after turning 21.” Regular gynecological Pap tests are the best way to detect most abnormal cell changes due to HPV well before they become cancer.

“Early detection of precancer cells makes it possible for a woman to be effectively treated before it becomes malignant, but unfortunately not every woman in committed to receive a regular Pap Test. This needs to become a priority for every woman, and particularly those who are intent on staying healthy.”

About Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group

Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group offers comprehensive testing with the latest available technology to screen for a full-spectrum of diseases and symptoms, and to monitor conditions as they develop in order to maximize patients’ health and well-being. The Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group strives to better the lives of all women with a holistic approach to women’s health. Visit the website to learn more or call 707-579-1102 to schedule an appointment.

Researchers find Vitamin B3 beneficial for pregnant women to treat preeclampsia, prevent strokes

Vitamin B3 nicotinamide may help treat pregnant women who suffer from preeclampsia by preventing strokes and in some cases, even stimulating the growth of their fetus, research indicates.

Scientists in Japan and the US have found that vitamin B3 nicotinamide may help treat pregnant women who suffer from preeclampsia by preventing strokes and in some cases, even stimulating the growth of their fetus.

Up to 8% of pregnant women suffer from preeclampsia, a deadly disease characterized by high blood pressure, blood vessel damage, high levels of protein in the urine and fluid retention that causes swelling in the legs and feet. In some cases, preeclampsia is also believed to restrict a fetus’ growth.

Blood pressure-lowering drugs do not improve blood vessel damage. In fact, they reduce blood supply to the babies, which could lead to fetal death.

Until now, the only treatment for preeclampsia-affected pregnant women has been delivery of the baby. Now, researchers at Tohoku University, in collaboration with US scientists, have found that nicotinamide — also referred to as Vitamin B3 — relieves preeclampsia in mouse models. Moreover, they have also discovered that nicotinamide can even improve fetal growth in mothers with preeclampsia.

“We had previously shown that endothelin, a strong vessel narrowing hormone, worsens preeclampsia. But inhibiting the hormone is harmful to the babies,” says Associate Professor Nobuyuki Takahashi of Tohoku University’s Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, who co-led the study.

“In contrast, nicotinamide is generally safe to mothers and babies, corrects the blood vessel narrowing effect of endothelin, and reduces stress to the babies. Accordingly, we evaluated the effects of nicotinamide using two mouse models of preeclampsia caused by different mechanisms.”

The researchers concluded that nicotinamide is the first safe drug that lowers blood pressure, reduces urine protein and alleviates blood vessel damage in preeclampsia-affected mice. The researchers went on to show that in many cases, nicotinamide also prevents miscarriage, prolongs pregnancy period and improves the growth of the babies in mice with preeclampsia.

“Nicotinamide merits evaluation for preventing and treating preeclampsia in humans,” says Oliver Smithies, a Weatherspoon Eminent Distinguished Professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Smithies is a Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, and co-leader of this study.

The research team hopes that if the treatment works in humans, nicotinamide could help treat preeclampsia and prevent fetal growth restriction associated with the disease in pregnant women.

Journal Reference:

  1. Feng Li, Tomofumi Fushima, Gen Oyanagi, H. W. Davin Townley-Tilson, Emiko Sato, Hironobu Nakada, Yuji Oe, John R. Hagaman, Jennifer Wilder, Manyu Li, Akiyo Sekimoto, Daisuke Saigusa, Hiroshi Sato, Sadayoshi Ito, J. Charles Jennette, Nobuyo Maeda, S. Ananth Karumanchi, Oliver Smithies, Nobuyuki Takahashi. Nicotinamide benefits both mothers and pups in two contrasting mouse models of preeclampsia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016; 113 (47): 13450 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1614947113

Read this article on Science daily:  “Potential treatment for pregnant women who suffer from preeclampsia found in a vitamin.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 December 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/12/161219100556.htm>.