menopause

When it comes to hormone therapy, you have options

Menopause care may include hormone therapy treatment

Your body’s hormone levels go through significant changes during the menopause transition, and resulting hormonal imbalances can create uncomfortable physical symptoms and mood swings. Fortunately, hormone therapy (HT) enables menopausal women to substitute for the hormones that are reduced during this transition to relieve symptoms and achieve long-term health advantages. Our physicians will talk with you about the risks and benefits of hormone therapy to help you find the options that best fit your individual body and lifestyle.

In recent years, the media has spotlighted menopause and HT helping to increase general awareness, but it is still important to filter the available information in the context of scientific-based research and peer-reviewed evidence from medical professionals.

Quick facts:

  • The term “hormone therapy” covers both traditional hormone therapy (HRT) and natural (bioidentical) hormone replacement therapy (BHRT), as well as estrogen and combined estrogen/progesterone treatment.
  • BHRT makes use of hormones that are identical to human hormones, and HRT makes use of synthetic hormones that have a slight physical variation to bioidentical hormones, but serve the similar purpose of replacing hormones lost during menopause.
  • Nearly all modern hormone medications are derived from the same plant sources.

Your physician at NCMA Women’s OB/GYN Center will personalize your HT treatment after accounting for various health benefits and risks based on your symptoms and lifestyle. Not all women will be candidates for HT, and medications and other health factors can affect eligibility.

Learn more about hormone therapy from National Institutes of Health.

Pasta and rice hastens menopause according to new study

high dietary intake of refined carbs, such as pasta and rice, may instead help to hasten menopause

Fish and Legumes May Delay Onset of Menopause

A diet rich in fish and legumes may help to delay the natural menopause, while high dietary intake of refined carbs, such as pasta and rice, may instead help to hasten it, suggests the first UK study of its kind, published online in the Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health.

Several genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors are thought to be involved in the timing of the menopause, and some studies have implicated diet.

To explore this further, the researchers drew on participants from the UK Women's Cohort Study, involving more than 35,000 women between the ages of 35 and 69 from England, Scotland, and Wales.

The women provided information on potentially influential factors such as weight history, physical activity levels, reproductive history, and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

They also estimated the quantities of 217 foodstuffs they ate every day by completing a food frequency questionnaire. The food items were collated into groups according to their culinary uses.

Further information on when the women had gone through the menopause naturally was gathered four years later.

In all, some 14,000 women provided information at both time points, and the final analysis included the 914 who had gone through the menopause naturally after the age of 40 and before the age of 65.

The average age at menopause was 51, and certain foods seemed to be associated with its timing.

Each additional daily portion of refined carbs — specifically pasta and rice — was associated with reaching the menopause 1.5 years earlier, after taking account of potentially influential factors.

But each additional portion of oily fish and fresh legumes (eg peas, beans) was associated with a delay of more than three years. Higher intakes of vitamin B6 and zinc (mg/day) were also associated with later menopause.

Similar results emerged when the analysis looked at particular groups. For example, eating meat was associated with menopause arriving almost a year later than a vegetarian diet.

Among those who weren't vegetarian, upping daily portions of savoury snacks was associated with the arrival of the menopause almost 2 years earlier, while higher intake of oily fish and fresh legumes was linked to later menopause of more than 3 and nearly 1.5 years, respectively.

Similarly, among mothers, higher intake of oily fish and fresh legumes was associated with later menopause, while additional daily portions of pasta, rice, and savoury snacks were associated with earlier menopause.

Among childless women, eating more grapes and poultry was significantly associated with later menopause.

Egg maturation and release are adversely affected by reactive oxygen species, so a high intake of legumes, which contain antioxidants, may counter this, preserving menstruation for longer, suggest the researchers, in a bid to explain the findings. And omega 3 fatty acids, which are abundant in oily fish, stimulate antioxidant capacity in the body.

On the other hand, refined carbs boost the risk of insulin resistance, which can interfere with sex hormone activity and boost oestrogen levels, both of which might increase the number of menstrual cycles and deplete egg supply faster, they say.

Vegetarians consume a lot of antioxidants too, but they are also likely to eat a lot more fibre and less animal fat than carnivores, both of which are associated with low oestrogen levels, which may also alter the timing of the menopause, suggest the researchers.

This is an observational study, and as such, can't prove causality. Food Frequency Questionnaires are subject to faulty recall, and the study sample was also more affluent and health conscious than average, all of which might have influenced the findings.

But women who go through the menopause early are at increased risk of osteoporosis and heart disease, while those who go through it late are at increased risk of breast, womb, and ovarian cancers, so timing matters, say the researchers.

And they conclude: "Our findings confirm that diet may be associated with the age at natural menopause. This may be relevant at a public health level since age at natural menopause may have implications on future health outcomes."


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Materials provided by BMJ. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Yashvee Dunneram, Darren Charles Greenwood, Victoria J Burley, Janet E Cade. Dietary intake and age at natural menopause: results from the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 2018; DOI: 10.1136/jech-2017-209887

Read this article on Science Daily: " ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 April 2018.  www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/04/180430212400.htm .

Discontinuance of Hormone Therapy May Be Hazardous to the Heart

A new study demonstrates that the risk of cardiac and stroke death actually increases in the first year after discontinuation of HT.
Hormone therapy (HT) continues to be a hotly debated topic. The benefits of estrogen to the heart, however, appear to be universally accepted. A new study demonstrates that the risk of cardiac and stroke death actually increases in the first year after discontinuation of HT. Study results are published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

Since publication of the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trial data, there has been significant disagreement over the various risks and benefits of HT. What remains relatively unchallenged is the fact that estrogen has rapid beneficial vascular effects and that shorter periods between the onset of menopause and the initiation of HT provide greater protection against cardiovascular disease. This beneficial relationship between HT and protection against heart disease has led to the speculation that withdrawal from HT could result in clinically significant changes in arterial function. Although previous studies have shown that termination of estradiol-based HT led to significant increases in the risk of cardiac and stroke deaths, particularly during the first year, these results were questioned because women with documented heart problems had not been excluded from the study.

This study, however, involving more than 400,000 Finnish women excluded women with prior cardiac or stroke events. The results of the study, published in the article “Increased cardiac and stroke death risk in the first year after discontinuation of postmenopausal hormone therapy,” showed that discontinuation of HT was associated with an increased risk of cardiac and stroke death during the first posttreatment year, especially in women who discontinued HT aged younger than 60 years. This increased risk was not observed in women aged 60 years or older at the time of discontinuation.

“Since the initial Women’s Health Initiative reports, studies have shown that hormone therapy has many benefits and is safer than originally thought. This is especially true for symptomatic menopausal women younger than age 60 and within 10 years of menopause, as these women had fewer heart events and less risk of mortality,” says Dr. JoAnn Pinkerton, NAMS executive director. “This new study suggests that younger women may have a higher risk of heart disease and stroke during the first year of discontinuation. Thus, women and their healthcare providers need to consider the benefits and risks of starting and stopping hormone therapy before making any decisions.”


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Materials provided by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Read this article on ScienceDaily.com: The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). “Risk of cardiac and stroke death increases after discontinuing hormone therapy: Highest risk occurs in first year after discontinuation, especially in women aged younger than 60 years.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 November 2017. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/11/171108124156.htm.

The facts about licorice extracts for treating menopausal symptoms

Licorice roots have a flavorful history, having been used in ancient Egyptian teas and in traditional Chinese medicines, all the way to today as a flavoring agent and candy. And some women now take licorice extracts as supplements to treat menopausal symptoms. But scientists caution that licorice could pose a health risk by interacting with medications.
Women take licorice extracts as supplements to treat menopausal symptoms. But scientists caution that licorice could pose a health risk by interacting with medications.Licorice roots have a diverse and flavorful history, having been used in ancient Egyptian times as a tea and in traditional Chinese medicines, all the way to today as a flavoring agent and as an ingredient in some licorice candies. Some women now take licorice extracts as supplements to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms. But scientists caution that the substance could pose a health risk by interacting with medications.

The researchers are presenting their results today at the 254th National Meeting & Exposition of the American Chemical Society (ACS).

“Concerns about the risk of stroke and breast cancer associated with conventional hormone therapy are prompting women to seek alternatives,” Richard B. van Breemen, Ph.D., says. “Some take botanical dietary supplements, such as licorice, to treat menopausal symptoms like hot flashes.”

But just because a substance is sold as a supplement in a health food store doesn’t mean it is completely safe for all people to take. And on its own, even as a candy, licorice can be harmful in some cases. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommends that licorice not be eaten in large amounts during one sitting, and warns that excessive consumption can lead to irregular heart rhythm and muscle fatigue.

“Consuming too much licorice can be harmful, but in our lab, we wondered whether the small amounts in dietary supplements might also cause problems by interfering with drug metabolism or transportation,” says van Breemen, who is at the University of Illinois at Chicago. “The liver has enzymes that process medications, and if these enzymes are induced or inhibited, the drugs will either be processed too quickly or too slowly, respectively.” He points out that these changes could pose a significant safety risk to those who take a daily licorice dietary supplement along with other medication.

Van Breemen’s team analyzed how three types of licorice — two North American species, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. inflata, and a European species called G. glabra — affected liver enzymes involved in drug metabolism. They found that all three species inhibit several of these enzymes. Only G. uralensis and G. inflataextracts were found to induce some of these enzymes. Therefore, the researchers say that G. uralensis and G. inflata are more likely to interfere with drug metabolism when compared to G. glabra.

Consumers would have a difficult time using this information, however, because most supplements don’t list the species on their labels. But the researchers are using this knowledge to develop their own licorice therapy that would be safe and effective for women experiencing menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes. They plan to start clinical trials on their G. glabra-based supplements next year.


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Materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Read this article on Science Daily: American Chemical Society. “Licorice is a hot trend in hot flashes, but could interact with medications.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 August 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/08/170821085705.htm.

BMI determines risk of heart disease in middle-aged women

A woman’s race and where on her body she packs on pounds at midlife could give her doctor valuable clues to her likelihood of having greater volumes of heart fat, a potential risk factor for heart disease, according to new research.

BMI determines risk of heart disease in middle-aged women

A woman’s race and where on her body she packs on pounds at midlife could give her doctor valuable clues to her likelihood of having greater volumes of heart fat, a potential risk factor for heart disease, according to new research led by the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.

The findings, published online today in the journal Menopause, show that black women who put on fat around their midsection during midlife are more likely to accumulate fat around their hearts, whereas white women’s risk of fatty hearts is higher when they add weight all over. The results echo the findings of a Pitt Public Health study three years ago in men.

BMI determines risk of heart disease in middle-aged women

“Excess fat around the heart, in both men and women, is an evolving risk factor for heart disease. But how can clinicians see it at a regular physical? They can’t without a special heart scan,” said senior author Samar El Khoudary, Ph.D., M.P.H., associate professor of epidemiology at Pitt Public Health. “This study, coupled with our previous study in men, gives doctors another tool to evaluate their patients and get a better sense of their heart disease risk. It also may lead to suggestions for lifestyle modifications to help patients lessen that risk.”

El Khoudary and her team evaluated clinical data, such as CT scans and blood pressure, on 524 women from Pittsburgh and Chicago enrolled in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). The women were in varying stages of menopause, averaged 51 years old and were not on hormone replacement therapy.

The bottom line on BMI and heart disease

After accounting for the potential health effects of lifestyle and socioeconomic factors, such as smoking, alcohol consumption and financial strain, the researchers determined that, not surprisingly, the more fat a women carries overall, the higher her risk for a fatty heart.

However, white women with higher body mass indexes, or BMI, which is a measure of overall body fat, had significantly more heart fat, as measured by a CT scan, than black women with the same BMI. BMI determines risk of heart disease in middle-aged women

For black women, the levels of heart fat were greater if they carried more fat in their midsection, as measured by a cross-sectional CT scan, compared with white women with the same volume of fat in their midsection.

El Khoudary’s team found that the heart fat black women with larger waistlines accumulate is closer to their hearts than the fat the white women with higher BMI’s accumulate. Fat close to the heart secretes inflammatory markers directly to the heart tissue and produces a greater detrimental effect as it expands.

“We’ve now come to very similar conclusions that show excess abdominal fat is worse for both black men and women, and a higher BMI is worse for white men and women when it comes to their odds of having more fat around their hearts,” said El Khoudary, who noted that the current analysis could not assess changes over time. “There is something going on here that warrants further investigation to determine why it is happening and what tailored interventions doctors may prescribe to help their patients lower their risk.”


Story Source: Materials provided by University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Read this article on ScienceDaily: University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences. “Risk of a fatty heart linked to race, type of weight gain in middle-aged women.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 August 2017.


The Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group strives to better the lives of all women with a holistic approach to women’s health. Call for an appointment today: (707) 579-1102. Visit our website: www.womensobgynmed.com

Diet that includes vegetable protein may protect against early menopause

Eating more vegetable protein may protect against early menopause: Study shows modest but significant lower risk in older women, linking diet menopause.Results of a new study from epidemiologists at the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health suggest that long-term diet that includes a high intake of vegetable protein from such foods as whole grains, soy and tofu, may protect women from early menopause and could prolong reproductive function. Diet menopause.

Consuming enriched pasta, dark bread and cold cereal were especially associated with lower risk, while they observed no similar relation to eating animal sources of protein.

“A better understanding of how dietary vegetable protein intake is associated with ovarian aging may identify ways for women to modify their risk of early onset menopause and associated health conditions,” write first author and then-graduate student Maegan Boutot, with her advisor, professor Elizabeth Bertone-Johnson. Details appear in the current early online edition of the American Journal of Epidemiology.

Early menopause, the cessation of ovarian function before age 45, affects about 10 percent of women and is associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and early cognitive decline, the authors note. Few studies have evaluated how protein intake is associated with menopause timing, they add, and to their knowledge this is the first to look specifically at early menopause.

Boutot, Bertone-Johnson and colleagues in the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at UMass Amherst, with others, evaluated the relationship between diet and risk of early menopause among members of the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS2), an ongoing prospective study of 116,000 women aged 25-42 when they entered it in 1989.

Participants were asked to report how often they ate a single serving of 131 foods, beverages and supplements over the previous year, from “never or less than once a month” to “6+ per day.” They observed that women consuming approximately 6.5 percent of their daily calories as vegetable protein had a significant 16 percent lower risk of early menopause compared to women whose intake was approximately 4 percent of calories.

Diet Menopause

For a woman with a 2,000 calorie per day diet, the authors explain, this is equal to three to four servings of such foods as enriched pasta, breakfast cereal, tofu and nuts, or about 32.5 grams a day. They adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index and other possible confounding factors.

Boutot and Bertone-Johnson add, “Though relatively few women in our study consumed very high levels of vegetable protein and our power for analyses of more extreme intake levels was limited, women consuming 9 or more percent of their calories from vegetable protein had a hazard ratio of 0.41 (95 percent confidence interval = 0.19-0.88)” compared to those eating less than 4 percent.

Others on the study team were from Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. The study was supported by a grant from NIH’s Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

For the NHS2, follow-up questionnaires have assessed nurses’ lifestyle behaviors and medical conditions every two years. Nearly 90 percent have continued to participate in followup. Diet was assessed five times over the 20-year study, allowing the researchers to capture within-person variation in changes in food and nutrient intake over times, Boutot explains. Participants in the study contributed more than 1 million person-years of follow-up, during which 2,041 women experienced early menopause.

Boutot and Bertone-Johnson suggest that more prospective studies of their findings are warranted, including studies that compare soy-based and non-soy vegetable proteins.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. University of Massachusetts at Amherst. “Eating more vegetable protein may protect against early menopause: Study shows modest but significant lower risk.” Read this article on ScienceDaily:  ScienceDaily, 26 June 2017. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/06/170626093604.htm.


The Women’s OB/GYN Medical Group strives to better the lives of all women with a holistic approach to women’s health. Call for an appointment today: (707) 579-1102. Visit our website: www.womensobgynmed.com

Could hot flashes indicate risk of heart disease?

Study shows younger midlife women with hot flashes more likely to have poor vascular function

Hot flashes, one of the most common symptoms of menopause, have already been shown to interfere with a woman’s overall quality of life. A new study shows that, particularly for younger midlife women (age 40-53 years), frequent hot flashes may also signal emerging vascular dysfunction that can lead to heart disease. The study outcomes are published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

The study involving 272 nonsmoking women aged 40 to 60 years is the first to test the relationship between physiologically assessed hot flashes and endothelial cell (the inner lining of the blood vessels) function. The effect of hot flashes on the ability of blood vessels to dilate was documented only in the younger fertile of women in the sample. There was no association observed in the older women (age 54-60 years), indicating that early occurring hot flashes may be those most relevant to heart disease risk. The associations were independent of other heart disease risk factors.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. The results from the study, “Physiologically assessed hot flashes and endothelial function among midlife women,” may offer valuable information for healthcare providers working to assess the risk of heart disease in their menopausal patients. Hot flashes are reported by 70% of women, with approximately one-third of them describing them as frequent or severe. Newer data indicate that hot flashes often start earlier than previously thought — possibly during the late reproductive years — and persist for a decade or more. “Hot flashes are not just a nuisance. They have been linked to cardiovascular, bone, and brain health,” says Dr. JoAnn Pinkerton, executive director of NAMS. “In this study, physiologically measured hot flashes appear linked to cardiovascular changes occurring early during the menopause transition.”

 


 

Story Source:Materials provided by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference:

Rebecca C. Thurston, Yuefang Chang, Emma Barinas-Mitchell, J. Richard Jennings, Roland von Känel, Doug P. Landsittel, Karen A. Matthews. Physiologically assessed hot flashes and endothelial function among midlife women. Menopause, 2017; 1 DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000857

 

Good news for mature women: weight loss is possible after menopause

Talk to a woman in menopause and you’re likely to hear complaints about hot flashes and an inability to lose weight, especially belly fat. A new study shows how regular exercise can help reduce weight and control bothersome symptoms such as hot flashes, even in women who previously led sedentary lifestyles. The study outcomes are being published online today in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

Decreased estrogen levels during the menopause transition often create an array of physical and mental health issues that detract from a woman’s overall quality of life. The article “Improvements in health-related qualify of life, cardio-metabolic health, and fitness in postmenopausal women after a supervised, multicomponent, adapted exercise program in a suited health promotion intervention: a multigroup study” reports on 234 Spanish postmenopausal women aged 45 to 64 years who had at least 12 months of sedentary behavior and engaged in a supervised 20-week exercise program for the study. After the intervention, the participants experienced positive changes in short- and long-term physical and mental health, including significant improvements in their cardiovascular fitness and flexibility. In addition, they achieved modest but significant reductions in their weight and body mass index, and their hot flashes were effectively managed. This is especially good news for women who are reluctant to use hormones to manage their menopause symptoms and are looking for safe but effective nonpharmacologic options without adverse effects.

“Growing evidence indicates that an active lifestyle with regular exercise enhances health, quality of life, and fitness in postmenopausal women,” says Dr. JoAnn Pinkerton, NAMS executive director. “Documented results have shown fewer hot flashes and improved mood and that, overall, women are feeling better while their health risks decrease.


Story Source:Materials provided by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Read this article on ScienceDaily:

The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). “Weight loss actually possible after menopause.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 February 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170215084052.htm>.

Women who enter menopause at or before age 40 more susceptible to bone fracture

If you’re in menopause before the age of 40, you have a higher fracture risk. That fact has already been proven by the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical trials. Now a new study evaluating the same WHI data further concludes that, even with calcium and vitamin D supplements, your risk of fracture is still higher. The study is being published online in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

For years, calcium and vitamin D have been touted for their abilities to increase bone mineral density. Hormone therapy is also recognized for its ability to help ward off osteoporosis. That’s what prompted this latest study to evaluate the effectiveness of calcium, vitamin D, and/or hormones in offsetting the higher fracture risks for women experiencing early menopause. Based on an evaluation of nearly 22,000 women included in the WHI trials, women aged younger than 40 years already in menopause had significantly higher risks for fracture than women who experienced menopause between the ages of 40 and 49 or after 50, regardless of treatment intervention.

Although the findings are disappointing for women experiencing an early onset of menopause, the study did open the door to a number of questions and possibilities. For example, women with early menopause are candidates for hormone therapy until at least the average age of menopause (52 years) to reduce the risks of heart disease, osteoporosis, and cognitive and mood changes. It is possible that earlier initiation of treatment for those with early menopause with calcium, vitamin D, or hormones; more appropriate dosing of young women, longer duration of treatment; or longer duration of follow-up could provide better bone protection and ultimately reduce fracture risk.

“This study highlights the need for healthcare providers to take into consideration a woman’s age at menopause onset when evaluating patients for fracture risk,” says Dr. JoAnn Pinkerton, NAMS executive director. “Women at risk for bone loss need 1,200 mg of calcium per day, with adequate vitamin D, and encouraged to get as much as possible through diet due to concern that too much supplemental calcium may increase atherosclerotic plaque in women. Women with early menopause should discuss whether they are candidates for hormone therapy with their providers, appropriate amount of calcium, vitamin D and hormones.”


Story Source:

Materials provided by North American Menopause Society (NAMS). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


North American Menopause Society (NAMS). “Link between early menopause, higher risk of fracture, new study confirms.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 November 2016. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161102155224.htm.

Who has better memory recall: men or women?

woman-thinkingIn the battle of the sexes, women have long claimed that they can remember things better and longer than men can. A new study proves that middle-aged women outperform age-matched men on all memory measures, although memory does decline as women enter postmenopause. The study is being published online in Menopause, the journal of The North American Menopause Society (NAMS).

Memory loss, unfortunately, is a well-documented consequence of the aging process. Epidemiological estimates suggest that approximately 75% of older adults report memory-related problems. Women report increased forgetfulness and “brain fog” during the menopause transition. In addition, women are disproportionately at risk for memory impairment and dementia compared with men. Despite these conditions working against them, middle-aged women still outscore their similarly aged male counterparts on all memory measures, according to the study.

The cross-sectional study of 212 men and women aged 45 to 55 years assessed episodic memory, executive function, semantic processing, and estimated verbal intelligence through cognitive testing. Associative memory and episodic verbal memory were assessed using a Face-Name Associative Memory Exam and Selective Reminding Test.

In addition to comparing sex differences, the study also found that premenopausal and perimenopausal women outperformed postmenopausal women in a number of key memory areas. Declines in estradiol levels in postmenopausal women were specifically associated with lower rates of initial learning and retrieval of previously recalled information, while memory storage and consolidation were maintained.

“Brain fog and complaints of memory issues should be taken seriously,” says Dr. JoAnn Pinkerton, NAMS executive director. “This study and others have shown that these complaints are associated with memory deficits.”


Story Source:

Materials provided by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Dorene M. Rentz, Blair K. Weiss, Emily G. Jacobs, Sara Cherkerzian, Anne Klibanski, Anne Remington, Harlyn Aizley, Jill M. Goldstein. Sex differences in episodic memory in early midlife. Menopause, 2016; 1 DOI: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000771

The North American Menopause Society (NAMS). “Who has the better memory, men or women?.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 November 2016. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/11/161109112447.htm.